What are the causes of an abnormal pap smear?

STEPHEN MONTOYA, M.D., OB/GYN
STEPHEN MONTOYA, M.D., OB/GYN
Though several causes of an abnormal pap smear may be cited, the single most prevalent and important cause of an abnormal pap smear is the human papillomavirus otherwise known as HPV. HPV is the leading (probably sole) cause of cervical cancer. There is huge hope that HPV as a cause of cervical cancer may be eliminated by vaccinating young women against these viruses.

How can I prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs)?
To avoid UTIs, a reproductive age female needs to relieve often and not hold it in; practice good elimination hygiene; maintain good lubrication during intercourse; and relieve yourself as soon as convenient after each sex act. While it is not proven to eliminate UTIs, it decreases frequency.

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